But first, on Jeopardy on Monday, they had a category titled "STARTS WITH "Z"." One clue was
"Literally meaning "golden", it's the basic monetary unit of Poland"
The correct question is "What is złoty?"
Yet not one of the three contestants even rang in. No one knew. A little disappointing since I am 75% Polish.
How to pronounce it? One site says "zuh·laa·tee." Another says "zwa-ti." You pronounce the ti like ti in tin but you drop the n. It seems like the accent is on the second syllable. See ItsEwelina.
Now on to exchange rates.
On June 30, 2014 , the Trade Weighted U.S. Dollar Index: Major Currencies (DTWEXM) was 75.7 (the index starts in 1973 at 100, so the dollar was lower in value compared to other major currencies in 2014 than it was in 1973).
See Trade Weighted U.S. Dollar Index: Major Currencies (DTWEXM) from the St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank.
But by March 16, 2015, it was at 93.1, just about a 23% increase in value.
Why did the dollar rise? Here is what The Economist magazine said:
"The principal reasons for the greenback’s rapid strengthening are simple to grasp. With Europe and Japan stuck in the doldrums, and China and other emerging markets slowing, America’s economy looks relatively strong. The IMF expects it to grow by 3.6% this year. The Federal Reserve has already begun to tighten monetary policy, by stopping its programme of asset purchases, and is now preparing the ground to go further. This week the Fed altered the wording it uses to describe its plans (see article), giving itself room to raise interest rates later this year—the first rise since 2006. With American monetary policy tightening, and other central banks still loosening, investors can make higher returns from dollar-denominated assets. In capital floods, and up the dollar goes."See Mismatch point: The rise of the dollar will punish borrowers in emerging markets.
Here is another view from Andrew Hecht. He is an international commodity trader, an options expert and analyst.
"There are many reasons that the dollar has appreciated over recent months. The U.S. economy is still the largest in the world. Despite demographics, the U.S. remains the strongest economic nation in the world. The U.S. remains a powerful nation even though less than five percent of the world's population live within U.S. borders. The dollar is the reserve currency of the world. Many other nations hold dollars as a key part of their reserves due to the political and economic stability in the United States. Dollar strength has been the result of moderate growth in the U.S. economy. While European growth remains lethargic, the nation that experienced the highest degree of growth in recent years, China, has seen its growth rate slow. The Chinese economic has shifted from heavy manufacturing to a consumer based economy. As the size of the Chinese economy swells, it becomes harder to grow on a percentage basis as it has in the past.
Think of it this way, it is easier to make a seven percent return on one million dollars than it is to make a commensurate return on one trillion dollars. The sheer size of the Chinese economy makes the percentage growth rate seen in years past almost impossible to sustain. Therefore, Chinese economic growth has slowed on a percentage basis.
Relative strength of the U.S. economy, when compared to those of Europe and China, is a positive factor for the dollar.
A bear market in commodity prices has also been supportive for the dollar. The U.S. is a major consumer of raw materials and lower prices amount to stimulus for the American economy. At the same time, the currencies of nations that depend on commodity revenues have suffered because of lower prices. Canada, Australia, Brazil, Russia, South Africa as well as other commodity producing nations have seen their currency values depreciate alongside raw material prices.
Another positive influence for the dollar is the relative rate of interest paid on the U.S. currency when compared to other currencies. For the first time in nine years, the U.S. central bank raised short-term interest rates in the United States in December 2015. The Federal Reserve also stated their intention that rates will continue to head higher in the months and years ahead. Short-term interest rates in the U.S. went to zero in the aftermath of the housing and global financial crisis in 2008. Growth in the U.S. economy no longer supports such accommodative monetary policy. As the dollar has offered the opportunity for capital growth, in terms of its appreciation versus other currencies since May 2014, higher interest rates add additional support in that they increase the yield on the currency for holders."