Thursday, December 02, 2021

The EU forbids the use of gender to help calculate car insurance premiums, leading women to pay more and men to pay less

 See The elusive equilibrium by Koen Smets. Excerpt:

"Insurers only care about the risk, and not about gender. If a particular category of people poses a higher or lower risk, all else being equal, than another one, they will seek to reflect that in the premium. When, as a society, we do not want to have inequity in the premiums, then we should accept that a unified premium might lead to a different disequilibrium and new inequities.

Motor insurance in Europe forms a very interesting case study. Traditionally, insurers charged women less, because they tend to be safer drivers, and hence make fewer and smaller claims. Unlike life expectancy, the factors determining the risk here are much more linked to individual choice and behaviour. Since 2012, an EU directive forbids insurers to use gender as an element in the calculation of the premium. So, in Q4 2011, men paid on average 17% more than the overall average premium, while women paid 20% less. In 2018, that difference with the overall average premium had shrunk to a 5% uplift for male drivers, and a 6% discount for female drivers. (The residual difference stems from the fact that men tend to drive more miles per year, in more powerful cars.) So, relatively speaking, the ‘gender equity’ intervention has increased the average premium for the lower-risk women by more than 17%, while it has cut it by just under 10% for the higher-risk men. Is this an improvement? It’s not so sure."

If men are less safe, insurers need them to charge men more. But the EU police has forced the companies to charge men too little and women too much. It probably brings some dangerous male drivers into the market while causing some females to drop out. Overall, driving is probably less safe.

The insurance market has a problem, though. The customers don’t always tell their insurance company their bad habits (like smoking, riding a motor cycle without a helmut, etc.). So they don’t know how risky you are and therefore don’t know what price to charge you. So sometimes these markets are not efficient.

Related posts:

Lose the Fat to Lower Your Insurance Rates  
How Did Astronauts Of The 60s "Purchase" Life Insurance?
Should Overweight People Pay More For Health Insurance?
Should We Pay People To Adopt A Healthy Lifestyle? 

'Spy car' worries raised by new Allstate patent
Should your company or insurer reward you for meeting exercise goals?
How insurance companies are using technology to better assess how risky customers might be
The EU Says Insurers Can No Longer Discriminate On The Basis Of Gender   
Some History of Insurance

Thursday, November 18, 2021

Strong U.S. Economy, Stimulus Spurs Migrants to Send Billions of Dollars Home

Global remittances to low- and middle-income economies fell 1.6% in 2020, defying expectations of a sharper drop

By Eun-Young Jeong of The WSJ. Excerpts:

"Foreign-born workers sent more than $500 billion back to their home countries in the developing world last year, as the economic recovery and generous government programs in areas such as the U.S. helped sustain a critical lifeline for poor nations still battling the Covid-19 pandemic.

According to fresh data from the World Bank, global remittances to low- and middle-income economies fell just 1.6% last year to $540 billion, defying expectations that the pandemic would squeeze overseas workers’ ability to earn and send money to relatives in their home countries."

"Foreign direct investment in medium- or low-income countries fell 30% last year, excluding China, the world’s top destination for FDI.

During the pandemic, stimulus payments and enhanced unemployment and furlough programs in the U.S. and Europe allowed foreign-born workers there to continue to work and cushioned the fall in their incomes. Moreover, many migrants work in key industries such as delivery services and healthcare that continued to operate last year."

"Remittances make up over a fifth of the gross domestic product in countries such as Lebanon, Nepal and Jamaica."

"In the Philippines, where remittances make up over 7% of its GDP, payments from abroad are forecast to have reached $2.5 billion just for the month of March, a 4.8% rise from the previous year"

"In Mexico, remittances reached $4.15 billion in March, the highest amount ever sent from the U.S. to Mexico by migrant workers in a given month and up 2.6% from the same period last year"

Friday, November 12, 2021

Can You Mix Economics With Religion?

 The ancient Greeks sure thought you could. They had a god of commerce and a god of wealth. You can read about them at Britannica.

Hermes (commerce)

Plutus (wealth)

The name of Plutus came up in a Wall Street Journal article called The Greek Tragedy That Changed Europe. It is about the debt problems that Greece faces and how they might affect the European Union. It says:

"Plutus, the Greek god of wealth, did not have an easy life. As the myth goes, Plutus wanted to grant riches only to the "the just, the wise, the men of ordered life." Zeus blinded him out of jealousy of mankind (and envy of the good), leaving Plutus to indiscriminately distribute his favors.

Modern-day Greece may be just and wise, but it certainly has not had an ordered life. As a result, the great opportunity and wealth bestowed by European integration has been largely squandered."

Here are links for Wikpedia:

Hermes

Plutus

The Freaknomics blog has a good article about people donate more money to their churches if other people can see how much they are donating called “We Pretend We Are Christians”